First Aid Skills Every Member of Your Family Needs to Know


1. The first thing you need to know is how to perform artificial respiration mouth-to-mouth. Make sure the airways are clear; if necessary, clean them with your finger, turning the person’s head to the side. Put a napkin on his/her mouth. Supporting the head under the neck, tilt it back, hold the nose, take a deep breath and breathe out into the person’s mouth, pressing their lips tightly. During the first 30 seconds, inhale and exhale frequently, then slow down the rhythm. If a person’s chest rises a little when the air is transmitted, then the ventilation is correct. To learn more and be prepared in case of emergency, you can take emergency first aid and CPR courses in accredited training facilities such as the CPR Training Markham facility.

2. In the absence of a pulse, an indirect heart massage is urgently needed. The person should lie only on a flat solid surface. Find the person’s xiphoid process – it is located at the end of the shortest and narrowest part of the sternum. Go 2-4 cm up from the xiphoid process and put the base of the palm on this point. The thumb is on the chin or on the belly of the person, depending on which side you are from. Place the second palm on top. Fingers should be interlocked. It is necessary to put pressure on the chest with the base of the palm: rhythmically, strongly and strictly vertically.

3. If the person began to choke, stand behind him/her, clasp them with your arms a bit higher than the navel, right under the ribs, jerk the arms in the elbows, pressing down on the victim’s stomach. Repeat until the breath is restored.

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4. If a person is bleeding to death, first determine what kind of bleeding it is. If the wound is superficial, it is enough to apply a clean bandage. If the blood is dark and flows abundantly but slowly – you’re dealing with the venous bleeding, and you must make a strongly pressing bandage. If the blood is scarlet and flows like a fountain, it is necessary to squeeze the artery closest to the wound (the most accessible is in the armpit and in the groin) and apply a tourniquet just above the wound. Bleeding should stop, and skin must turn pale. Apply a bandage and be sure to remember the time you applied a tourniquet. You shouldn’t leave it for more than one hour.

5. In the event of a fracture, secure the broken part of the body. If you suspect a spinal fracture, do not touch the person. In case of limb injuries, fix the joints above and below the fracture and apply a splint, using any available means: sticks, planks, etc. With an open fracture, you cannot apply the splint to protruding bones. And do not straighten a broken limb in any way, tie it to a splint as it is.

6. If a person has lost consciousness for no apparent reason, lay them on a comfortable surface and unbutton their clothes to ensure they get enough fresh air. Pat on their cheeks and sprinkle some cold water on their face. If you have a bottle of ammonia (aqueous ammonia solution), let their sniff it. Call an ambulance if the person does not regain consciousness in 3-5 minutes.

7. When drowning, place a choking person on the stomach on your knee, head down, and check for signs of life. If there is no pulse and breathing, place the person on the ground and begin artificial mouth-to-mouth respiration and an indirect heart massage.

8. In case of a burn, try to carefully remove the remnants of clothing from the affected surface and water it with clean cold water (the longer, the better). For disinfection, you can treat the skin with an aqueous solution of alcohol, vodka, chlorhexidine. In no case should you use any type of butter, cream, sour cream, etc.

9. If a person got frostbite, get them to a warm room, undress, and wrap in a dry blanket. Do not rub the frostbite. Give the person some warm, sweet tea if possible. No alcohol!

10. In case of poisoning, the type of first aid depends on its cause. Food poisoning with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain is neutralized by taking 3-5 grams of activated charcoal every 15 minutes for an hour and drinking plenty of water. In case of accidental or deliberate poisoning with drugs, severe alcohol intoxication, gastric lavage is necessary. Make a person drink a few glasses of salt water with soda (10 g of salt and 5 g of soda are diluted with 1 liter of water).


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