Breast Cancer occurred due to the growth of cancerous tissues in the breast. As per the National Institute of Health out of 8 women 1 also carry a chance of getting diagnosed with breast cancer. So here we are going to put our heads together in Breast cancer Stages and how to prevent breast cancer.
In the year 2014, more than 232,000 women found out to have breast cancer in the United States. It is common in the women holding the age category of 55 to 65 years. As stated by the National Cancer Institute, after skin cancer it is the second most common type of cancer found in women.
On the other hand, male breast cancer is very rare, around 1 percent of the total breast cancer. The survival rate for the patient suffering from breast cancer is 89 percent after the proper diagnosis.
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Causes of Breast Cancer:
Medical science is still not able to tell what causes the growth of the cancerous cell in the breast. As per the Mayo Clinic, the environment and the genetics plays some major role in causing breast cancer.
If you have a family history showing breast cancer than you are more likely to get diagnosed with this than others with no history. Even the starting of Menstruation that is around the age of 12 and the Menopause which occurs around the age of 55, can also cause breast cancer. Check top causes of breast cancer and risk factors.
Breast Cancer Symptoms:
Before we jump on the breast cancer Stages we have to check out the very important symptoms of breast cancer. Like other cancers, even breast cancer doesn’t show much symptoms before getting diagnosed. However, these are some of the possible breast cancer symptoms:
- Swelling or thickening of the breast.
- Lump in the armpit or in the breast.
- Other than milk, nipple discharge.
- Nipple area turns flaky or red.
- Skin irritations.
- Dimpling of the breast.
Breast Cancer Diagnosis:
Procedures and tests to diagnose the breast cancer are:
Breast and Armpit Exam:
Here doctor tests your breasts and armpit for any lymph nodes. If he feels any lymph node or any other abnormalities it advises you the further diagnosis.
In Mammography, the doctor takes the X-ray of your breasts. The screening shows any abnormalities in the breasts. If caught anything related to the breast cancer he can advise, advanced Mammography for deep detection.
Breast ultrasound is used to detect whether the lymph node in the breast is a liquid filled cyst or a solid mass.
Biopsy is the removal of the sample of breast cell for thorough testing. It is the most appropriate way for the best diagnosis of breast cancer. Here, with the help of X-ray, the doctor takes out the sample of the lump tissue through a special type of needle. This procedure includes leaving a small metal chip at the place from where doctors took out the sample, for the further case study.
Breast Cancer Stages:
After the completion of diagnosis, patients become curious to know the stages of breast cancer. So, that you should know how serious it is and what is the treatment it will require. Just like the diagnosis of breast cancer, you have to go through the blood test, bone scans, biopsy and X-ray to know about the stages of breast cancer:
- Stage 0: This means you are just at the initial stage of cancer. It has started growing in the milk gland and breast ducts. This stage is also called as Stage ‘situ’ which means ‘in its original place’.
- Stage I: At this breast cancer stage, cancer becomes broken and starts attacking healthy tissue. This stage is also called an invasive stage if breast cancer.
- Stage 1A: In this stage, cancer starts affecting the fatty breast tissues. In this stage, there may be no tumour at all or maybe a tumor of a shelled peanut size.
- Stage 1B: In this stage, some tiny amount of cancerous cells enters the lymph nodes.
- Stage II: This stage is all about the growth and spreadings of the cancerous cells.
- Stage IIA: This stage means if there is a tumour in the breast it is still very small. This stage also means there is no cancer in the lymph nodes or maybe has spread through just 3.
- Stage IIB: In the stage IIB the size of the tumor becomes bigger. It can take the size of a walnut or it can also be as big as a lime. However, in this stage, it may or may not have been spread through the lymph nodes.
- Stage III: In this stage, cancer becomes harder to cure and very advanced. Though, it is not spread through organs or bones yet.
- Stage IIIA: In this stage, some patients show a large tumor, wherein tumor is completely absent in some patients. Stage IIIB means now 9 of your lymph nodes are affected by cancer. We can also call it a chain from your armpit towards collarbone. Here it can also enlarge the lymph nodes inside the breast.
- Stage IIIB: This stage means the tumor as affecting the skin around your breast and the chest wall.
- Stage IIIC: This means cancer has affected 10 of your lymph nodes and now is present below and above the collarbone. If only a few of the lymph nodes inside the breast get enlarged and has become cancerous then it is also called as stage IIIC.
- Stage IV: In medical terms, this stage is called as metastatic, means cancerous cells has now affected other organs of the body. In this stage, breast cancer cells have spread away from breast and lymph nodes. Here it can affect bones, lungs, brain and liver.
Types of Breast Cancer:
Before we jump on the treatment and prevention of breast cancer it is important to know the types of the same as the treatment and prevention is completely depends upon it.
- Hormone receptor-positive: This is a very common type of breast cancer as about two third of the cancer tumor fed on estrogens. This type of breast cancer can be cured with chemotherapy.
- HER2-positive: Some breast cancer tumors have the HER2-positive type of protein helping the tumor to grow. This type of breast cancer found in 1 out of 5 cases which can be cured by medication and through antibodies.
- Triple-negative: This type of breast cancer doesn’t feed on estrogens nor on protein. Such type of cancer can be cured through chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Treatment:
Treatment of breast cancer depends upon the type and stages of cancer. Treatment normally targets the cancerous cells throughout the body. Treatments include radiation or surgery which destroy the cancerous cells without affecting the functioning of the body.
- Surgery: Surgical procedure includes, Removing the breast cancer lumpectomy and Removing a limited number of lymph nodes in the initial stage and if cancer becomes more aggressive than the removal of an entire breast or removal of both the breasts is the only option.
- Radiation therapy: In this type of procedure doctors takes the help of high-grade laser beam to kill the cancerous cells.
- Chemotherapy: This procedure takes the help of drugs to cure the cancer cells present in the breast or any part of the body.
- Hormone Therapy: This therapy blocks the production of harmonies responsible for the growth of cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Prevention:
Though it is tough to answer on how to prevent breast cancer still these simple steps can help you reduce the risk of the same:
- Physical Activity: Exercise is the key to good health and the same is applicable to the prevention of breast cancer. It is said that 30 minutes of physical activity can reduce the risk of breast cancer.
- Healthy weight: Maintaining a healthy weight is as important as keeping oneself neat and tidy. Also checking the weight regularly can help you stay away from obesity and also from breast cancer.
- Eat veggies and fruits: Including a healthy amount of vegetables and fruits in your diet can reduce the risk of breast cancer and also numerous other diseases.
- Avoid Alcohol: Reduction in the intake of alcohol can also reduce the risk of breast cancer.
- Breastfeeding: It is found that the women who breastfeed for more than a year have a lesser chance of getting breast cancer than those who don’t feed.
- Avoid smoking: Apart from breast cancer smoking can even cause another 15 types of cancers, heart disease and even strokes. Smoking also makes your breath bad, your teeth pal and your skin wrinkled.
- Avoid birth control pills: Birth control pills have both advantages and disadvantages. So as to avoid breast cancer you should avoid going for the birth control pills if your age is above 35 years and if you smoke. Though the risk disappears as soon as you stop the intake of pills. If a women smoke and also takes birth control pills the chance of getting stroke and heart attack also increases.
- Tamoxifen and Raloxifene: As per FDA taking Tamoxifen and Raloxifene as prescribed by the doctor can reduce the risk of breast cancer to a great extent. Not to forget, these medicines can also have certain side effects, so one should never take it without doctor’s advice.
- Postmenopausal Hormones: Taking Postmenopausal Hormones for a longer period of time so as to avoid osteoporosis can take your body in the direction of having breast cancer. Though these hormones have a mix of health effect like it reduces the risk of some diseases while increasing the possibility of others.
- Family history: When you are counting on cancers, family history can play an important role. It is found out that women with a family history of breast cancer have more chance of getting breast cancer than those with no Cancer family history. So having proper knowledge about family history is the best breast cancer prevention.